When a small claims case is appealed from the Justice Court (aka the Small Claims Court) to the County Court at Law, the parties tend to get serious about the litigation. Often, attorneys do not get involved until the case has been appealed to the County Court at Law from the Small Claims Court. The attorney who takes on a small claims appeal often finds that the pro se pleadings have numerous errors or deficiencies, most of which may be harmless in small claims court where the rules of evidence and procedure do not technically apply, but which may cause serious problems in the County Court at Law where the procedural rules can win or lose a case. There are, however, serious limits on what the attorney can do, on appeal, to fix these issues.
Generally, the pleadings can be amended on appeal, but new grounds for recovery cannot be added. Lost Creek Ventures, LLC v. Pilgrim, No. 01-15-00375-CV, 2016 Tex. App. LEXIS 6974, at *21-23 (App.—Dallas June 30, 2016); Richard v. Taylor, 886 S.W.2d 848, 851 (Tex. App.—Beaumont 1994); Carnegie Homes & Constr. LLC v. Turk, No. 14-16-00260-CV, 2017 Tex. App. LEXIS 8607, at *7-8 (App.—Houston [14th Dist.] Sep. 7, 2017). The rule has been stated as “new matters may be plead, but no new grounds of recovery may be added.” Merrikh v. Hernandez, NO. 01-98-00111-CV, 1999 Tex. App. LEXIS 9153, at *6-7 (App.—Houston [1st Dist.] Dec. 9, 1999). The boundaries of this general rule are somewhat unclear right now because the rule used to be found in Tex. R. Civ. P. 574a, which was repealed in 2013. How the law will change, if at all, based on the repeal of Tex. R. Civ. P. 574a, remains unclear. Generally, the county court’s appellate jurisdiction is confined to the limits of the justice court’s jurisdiction. Kendziorski v. Saunders, 191 S.W.3d 395, 406 (Tex. App.—Austin 2006, no pet.). However, this jurisdictional limit does not apply to amounts “sustained as a result of the passage of time.” Id. at 409.
Where the general rule is violated and a litigant brings claims in the county court at law that go beyond the limits of the small claims court, the proper remedy is not to dismiss the claims, but rather to sever them. Richard v. Taylor, 886 S.W.2d 848, 851 (Tex. App.—Beaumont 1994). If a party was not a party in the justice court, then the party is not a proper party to the appeal in the county court and claims involving such party should be severed from the justice court appeal. Merrikh v. Hernandez, NO. 01-98-00111-CV, 1999 Tex. App. LEXIS 9153, at *6-7 (App.—Houston [1st Dist.] Dec. 9, 1999).
Copyright 2017, Ian Ghrist, All Rights Reserved.
Disclaimer: This blog is for informational purposes only. Do not rely on any part of this blog as legal advice. Instead, seek out the advice of a licensed attorney. Also, this information may be out-of-date.